Agriculture is the practice of farming that entails cultivation of land to grow a plant and also the rearing of animals and other life forms for the purpose of getting food, biofuel, fiber and medicinal products which are helpful for human life sustenance. The human civilization can be grateful for agriculture since its rise relied on agriculture development. Agriculture history dated back thousands of years ago and its worldwide development has been due to the difference in climates, technologies, and the cultural practices. The use of modern methods such as plant breeding, use of pesticides and fertilizers and technologically advanced systems have increased the land produce from cultivation but in the same context it has also impacted negatively on the ecology and the human health. The agricultural products can be categorized into four groups namely foods, fuels, raw materials and fiber. Foods include vegetables, grains, fruits, meat, and oils. Fiber products are cotton, hemp, and wool, flax and silk. Fuels and Raw Materials include bamboo, lumber, wood, biofuels, dyes, drugs, resins, and perfumes. The agriculture sector is the second largest employer of the world work force with about one-third of workers in the agriculture sector.
Agriculture is a hazardous industry, especially when farming. A lot of farmers are at high risks for their daily works on the farm. Among the high risks associated with farming include the work related injuries, hearing loss that result from noise, lung diseases, skin problems, and cancer that relate to chemical use. In the case of industrial farms, the use of industrial machinery has resulted in frequent injuries. The use of agricultural chemicals can be dangerous to workers health, and those workers who get exposed to hazardous chemicals may experience illnesses or to an extent give birth to children with defects.
Agriculture imposes an extra cost on the society through different ways that include the use of pesticides, excessive water wastage and usage, loss of the nature environment and nutrients runoff. Climate change can impact agriculture through varying changes in temperatures, carbon, rainfall, solar radiation, and their significant interaction. Agriculture is the most vulnerable in case of climate changes, for example in the event of water shortage agricultural yields will substantially decrease. As the climate changes, extreme events such as floods and droughts are expected that can decrease or increase production. Different approaches will be required to manage the natural environment in the future with a system that encourages the use of climate smart agriculture to function.
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